In 2007, the International Asperger Syndrome Day was declared on February 18 in commemoration of the birth of Hans Asperger, Austrian psychiatrist who first described the clinical picture.


Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions that manifest in early childhood before the child starts school characterized by the presence of deficits that afflict his/her functionality.

When speaking of or using the word disorder, it is necessary to first understand its origin, which is etymologically composed of the Latin “trans” which means another side and “turn” to turn; relating it to the development of the individual, we can understand that it is a reversal, that is, an unfamiliar development to what is typically expected.

Within these we can locate the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in which it includes the following subtypes: autism, Asperger Syndrome and generalized developmental disorder not specified according to the new classification of DSM-5 (Statistical analysis of mental disorders manual) in the 2013 review. In ASD, there is a common clinical picture in three areas: behavior, social and communication, however, in each of the subcategories they have different characteristics.


In 1944 Hans Asperger described the behavior of four children between the ages of 6 and 11 who looked like “little teachers”, they spoke using their own sophisticated language; they manifested intense and unusual interests and showed themselves attached to routines and objects. But, it was not until 1981 that Lorna Wing coined the term Asperger Syndrome in her honor and marked the difference between autism.

Asperger Syndrome is a well-defined clinical entity, but often confused with high-functioning autism.

Asperger Syndrome
  • Normal IQ (90 or higher) it will never manifest decreased
  • Development of neurotypical language
  • Motor difficulties
High Performance Autism
  • Subnormal IQ (85-60)
  • Delayed language development (after 4 years of age)

Asperger Syndrome is often diagnosed after 5 years when the child is immersed in a social space because difficulties in social skills are starting to become evident, since these are increasingly complex in relation to development as we are social beings by nature. However, their peculiarities in language and behavior can be appreciated around the third year of life.


 They have excellent verbal skills: the development of their language is adequate and often advanced.

 Deficiencies are estimated in the pragmatic level of language, ie the social use within communication to decipher nonverbal language (eg use a linear tone in all their emotional expressions, difficulties in interpreting facial gestures, etc.).

 There is often a delay in motor development and clumsiness in motor coordination.

 Shows an inability for emotional social reciprocity (difficulty interpreting social cues, lack of response to the emotions of others, etc.).

 Apparent inflexibility for the performance of specific routines or rituals that cause dysfunctionality for daily life.

 Repetitive behaviors and obsessive interests of an idiosyncratic nature.

 They present outstanding cognitive strategies (eg extensive memory capacity) and original thoughts.

There are no medical cabinet studies (EEG, CT or MRI) to detect the syndrome, but rather, it is based on a clinical – behavioral level aimed at explaining development and behavior.